Conlang:Main Page

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Introduction

This is a constructed creole of several languages, mainly Farsi, Irish, Latin, and Tocharaian A & B with some Armenian, English, and Japanese influences.

I wanted to make a unique Indo-European language, so I decided to pull the lexicon from several subgroups of the Indo-European langauge family. I chose an Indo-Iranian language, Farsi (a.k.a. Persian), an Italic language, Latin, a Celtic Language, Irish, and both Tocharian languages. I have also snuck in a word or two of Armenian origin.

I mixed the grammatical systems of English, Latin, Irish, and to a very small extent Japanese into the grammatical system presented below. I took what I liked and used it.

1 You must have the fonts installed and be able to at least transliterate the script to correctly view these two sites. The Farsi dictionary also requires you to understand implied vowels.

Contents

Typology

Morphological Typology

Morphosyntactic Typology

Word order

Orthography

Note: Use the bottom of the vowels as a reference point for where the imaginary line on the paper is. Therefore, b, d, g, kh, l, m, n, p, r, sh, t, and y extend below the "line".

Phonology

Each sound is represented italized in the Latin alphabet, and then in linked IPA letters. (Note: You may not be able to view the IPA letters for technical reasons; see here for more information.) (Second Note: For those unfamiliar with IPA, just because most of the letters look like the English letters, it doesn't mean that they are.)

Vowels

Consonants

  • b - b
  • d - d
  • f - f
  • g - g 1
  • h - h 2
  • k - k
  • kh - x
  • l - l
  • m - m
  • n - n 1
  • p - p
  • r - r
  • s - s
  • sh - ʃ
  • t - t
  • v - v
  • w - w
  • y - j
  • z - z

1ng is realized as the Velar nasal (ŋ); which has no orthographic representation.

2Not a distinct phoneme; no orthographic representation.

Grammar

Markers

Particles preceed the words they modify, others attach to the end of the words they modify

  • a - Directional particle ("to")
  • i - Insturmental particle ("by"), particle of manner ("with"), particle of accompaniment ("with")
  • il - Augmentative particle
  • om - Direct object; lents to m when preceded by an o
  • os - Possession ("of"), noun linking; lents to s when preceded by an o
  • in - ("in", "on")
  • ne - Question marker; attaches to the end of the verb
  • sh - Plural marker for nouns; pre-empts other markers (i.e. shelshos (of stars))
  • y - Diminutive marker(often realized as i)

Verb Morphology

All verbs in the Conlang are regular, and each have a 1st-Person Singular, 2nd-Person Singular, and Analytical tenses.

Indicative Active
Aspect: Tense: Ending:
Present 1st Singular -o
2nd Singular -es
Analytic -ekh
Imperfect 1st Singular -a
2nd Singular -as
Analytic -akh
Future 1st Singular -bo
2nd Singular -bes
Analytic -bekh
Perfect 1st Singular -i
2nd Singular -is
Analytic -ikh
Pluperfect 1st Singular -u
2nd Singular -us
Analytic -ukh
Future Perfect 1st Singular -bi
2nd Singular -bis
Analytic -bikh


Indicative Passive
Aspect: Tense: Ending:
Present 1st Singular -io
2nd Singular -ies
Analytic -iekh
Imperfect 1st Singular -ia
2nd Singular -ias
Analytic -iakh
Future 1st Singular -ibo
2nd Singular -ibes
Analytic -ibekh
Perfect 1st Singular -yi
2nd Singular -yis
Analytic -yikh
Pluperfect 1st Singular -iu
2nd Singular -ius
Analytic -iukh
Future Perfect 1st Singular -ibi
2nd Singular -ibis
Analytic -ibikh


Active and Passive Subjunctive to be completed.


Imperative
Voice Ending
Active -khe
Passive -ikhi

Verbal Noun: -re

Explination

Right now, you're probably asking, "What the hell is all this crap?". I'll start from the top and work my way down.


Mood

The indictative mood states facts. The subjunctive mood represents idea, possibilities, or necessities. The subjunctive mood uses auxiliary verbs such as may, might, could, would, should, or must. The imperative mood is for commands.


Voice

The active voice means that the agent (usually, and imprecisely called the 'subject') does the action of the verb. The passive voice means that the agent recieves the action of the verb.


Aspect

The present aspect expresses what is going on now. The imperfect aspect expresses something that went on for a time in the past. The future aspect expresses what will go on in the future. The perfect aspect expresses what went on in the past. The pluperfect aspect represents an action that occured in the past that was completed before another action. The future perfect aspect expresses something that will be completed in the future. (N.B. The subjunctive mood only has the present, imperfect, perfect, and pluperfect aspects.)


Tense

The first person singular tense represents "I" as the agent of the sentence, meaning it is no longer nessecary to state the agent. The second person singular tense represents "you (singular)" as the agent of the sentance, meaning it is no longer nessecary to state the agent. The analytical tense is used with all other agents, which do need to be stated. Remember, the Conlang is in Verb Subject Object order, so the agent is always stated after the verb.


Other

The verbal noun is a special case. It represents either the the to preposition or the -ing suffix.


Examples:

  • Indicative Active Present - I love her.
  • Indicative Active Imperfect - I used to love her.
  • Indicative Active Future - I will love her.
  • Indicative Active Perfect - I loved her.
  • Indicative Active Pluperfect - I had loved her.
  • Indicative Active Future Perfect - I shall love her.
  • Indicative Passive Present - I am loved by her.
  • Indicative Passive Imperfect - I was loved by her.
  • Indicative Passive Future - I shall be loved by her.
  • Indicative Passive Perfect - I have been loved by her.
  • Indicative Passive Pluperfect - I had been loved by her.
  • Indicative Passive Future Perfect - I shall have been loved by her.
  • Subjunctive Active Present - I may love her.
  • Subjunctive Active Imperfect - I might love her.
  • Subjunctive Active Perfect - I may have loved her.
  • Subjunctive Active Pluperfect - I might have loved her.
  • Subjunctive Passive Present - I may be loved by her.
  • Subjunctive Passive Imperfect - I might be loved by her.
  • Subjunctive Passive Perfect - I may have been loved by her.
  • Subjunctive Passive Pluperfect - I might have been loved by her.
  • Imperative Active - Love!
  • Imperative Passive - Be Loved!
  • Verbal Noun - To love OR Loving

Dictionary

  • ae - air
  • akh - but
  • ali - some
  • am - to like
  • ana - there
  • ane - year
  • ar - to love
  • arki - white
  • bent - wind
  • bon - good
  • de - day
  • dea - goddess
  • deu - god
  • dir - to speak
  • dum - smoke
  • es - to be
  • eto - after
  • fler - river
  • gam - few
  • i - to go
  • ikh - ice
  • ina - here
  • ka - where
  • kad - what
  • kae - sky
  • kaer - blue
  • kam - to come
  • kan - when
  • kao - when
  • karkh - short
  • karer - to want
  • ki - who
  • kin - ash
  • kir - to say/to speak
  • kitab - book
  • kol - to cultivate
  • kuras - cold
  • kha - why
  • khad - hundred
  • khel - yellow
  • lak - lake
  • lakh - prince
  • latsa - princess
  • lav - to wash
  • lek - to see
  • lun - moon
  • maa - no
  • ma - we/us
  • maker - mother
  • maki - many
  • mal - bad
  • man - month
  • mant - how
  • mar - to kill
  • me - I/me
  • mer - sea
  • mil - thousand
  • mon - mountain
  • nab - cloud
  • nagi - to swim
  • nal - none
  • navi - to sail
  • nekh - snow
  • nil - zero
  • nokh - night
  • nokhe - dark
  • nu - nine
  • nut - to die
  • o - because
  • okt - eight
  • pa - son
  • pakar - father
  • par - brother
  • parkar - long
  • pek - to burn
  • pin - five
  • plur - most
  • pol - dust
  • por - fire
  • ratre - red
  • ri - city
  • sa - she
  • sakh - stone
  • sam - her
  • san - that
  • se - daughter
  • sek - six
  • ser - sister
  • ses - one
  • si - it
  • sin - this
  • skrif - to write
  • soma - same
  • sper - to breathe
  • su - he
  • sum - him
  • suwa - to eat
  • swar - four
  • swase - rain
  • shak - ten
  • shas - seven
  • she - they
  • shel - star
  • shelye - stary
  • ter - earth
  • tri - three
  • tu - you (singluar)
  • uarma - warm
  • uera - different
  • uir - to live
  • ume - all
  • war - water
  • wu - two
  • yam - to do
  • yok - to drink
  • zar - sand
  • zol - sun
  • zole - light

Notes

  • Though all the verbs are listed as if they are verbal nouns, they are simply unmodified stems
  • Verbs of motion use the particle e before the destination
  • Adjectives usually end with -os

Example Sentences

  • Aro samom. - I love her.
  • Ares sumom. - You love him.
  • Arekh sa meom. - She loves me.
  • Ia anaom. - I used to go there.
  • Iasne a lakom. - You used to go to the lake?
  • Iakh she a flerom. - They used to go to the river.
  • Kirbo tuos i parom. - I will speak with your brother.
  • Kirbesne i meos serom. - Will you speak with my sister?
  • Kirbekhne maker i maom. - Will mother speak with us?
  • Kareri sinom. - I wanted this.
  • Kadne kareris. - What did you want?
  • Karerikh il Dea a anaom. - The Goddess wanted to go there.

More to come later.